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Saturday, June 30, 2007

an alabaster box of ointment, and stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her

Mary Magdalene
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This article is about the disciple of Jesus. For other uses, see Mary Magdalene (disambiguation).
The penitent Mary Magdalene, a much reproduced composition by Titian.
The penitent Mary Magdalene, a much reproduced composition by Titian.
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Mary Magdalene is described, both in the canonical New Testament and in the New Testament apocrypha, as a devoted disciple of Jesus. She is considered by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican churches to be a saint, with a feast day of July 22. She is also commemorated by the Lutheran Church with a festival on the same day.

Mary Magdalene's name identifies her as the "Mary of Magdala", after the town she came from, on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, and distinguishes her from the other Marys referred to throughout the New Testament.

The life of the historical Mary Magdalene is the subject of ongoing debate, while the less-obscure development of the "penitent Megdalene", as the most beloved medieval female saint after Mary, both as an exemplar for the theological discussion of penitence and a social parable for the position and custody of women,[1] provides matter for the social historian and the history of ideas.

* 1 New Testament references
* 2 Identification with Mary of Bethany and "the woman sinner"
* 3 Identification as a Prostitute
* 4 Veneration
o 4.1 In the East
o 4.2 In the West
o 4.3 Mary as a penitent
* 5 Easter Egg tradition
* 6 Gospel of Mary
* 7 Relationship with Jesus
o 7.1 Metaphysical marriage
* 8 Cultural references
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 External links

[edit] New Testament references

In Luke 8:2 she is mentioned as one of the women who "ministered to Him [Jesus] of their substance" (in other words, they provided Jesus with money or supplies). The book also tells the story of an exorcism on Mary that cast out seven demons. These women, who earlier "had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities," later accompanied Jesus on his last journey to Jerusalem (Matthew 27:55; Mark 15:41; Luke 23:55) and were witnesses to the Crucifixion. Mary remained there until the body was taken down and laid in a tomb prepared for Joseph of Arimathea. In the early dawn of the first day of the week Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, (Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:2; Gospel of Peter 12), came to the sepulchre with sweet spices to anoint the body. They found the sepulchre empty but saw the "vision of angels" (Matthew 28:5). As the first witness to the empty tomb, Mary Magdalene went to tell Simon Peter and "the other disciple, the one whom Jesus loved," (John 20:1-2), (gaining her the epithet "apostle to the apostles") and again immediately returned to the sepulchre. She remained there weeping at the door of the tomb. According to John she was the first witness of the Resurrection appearances of Jesus, though at first she did not recognize him. When he said her name she was recalled to consciousness, and cried, Rabboni. She wanted to cling to him, but he forbade her: John 20:17 "Jesus said to her, 'Do not cling to Me, for I have not yet ascended to My Father; but go to My brethren and say to them, "I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God."'"

This is the last entry in the canonical Gospels regarding Mary of Magdala, who now returned to Jerusalem. She is probably included in the group of women who joined the Apostles in the Upper Room in Jerusalem after Jesus' ascension (Acts 1:14).

[edit] Identification with Mary of Bethany and "the woman sinner"

Tradition as early as the 3rd century (Hippolytus, in his Commentary on Song of Songs) identifies Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and the woman sinner, who anointed Jesus's feet[2]:

"And, behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat in the Pharisee's house, brought an alabaster box of ointment, and stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment."[3]

Though the woman remains unnamed, she has been identified with Mary of Bethany, the sister of Martha and the resurrected Lazarus (Luke 10:38-42 and John 11:1-2), as John 11:1-2 says:

"Now there was a certain man sick, named Lazarus, of Bethania, of the town of Mary and Martha her sister. And Mary was she that anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair: whose brother Lazarus was sick."

The identification of Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and "the woman who was a sinner" is reflected in an influential sermon Pope Gregory I gave in 591, which said: "She whom Luke calls the sinful woman, whom John calls Mary [of Bethany], we believe to be the Mary from whom seven devils were ejected according to Mark."

While the Catholic Church has not issued a binding view on this, Catholics have traditionally agreed with Gregory and identified all three women as the same Mary. Eastern Orthodox Christians distinguish between Mary Magdalene on the one hand and Mary of Bethany, "the woman who was a sinner", on the other hand. Protestants mostly reject all these identifications.

[edit] Identification as a Prostitute
Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys. Mary Magdalene. Ca. 1860.
Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys. Mary Magdalene. Ca. 1860.

Mary Magdalene is often referred to as a prostitute, but she was never called one in the New Testament.

Jeffrey Kripal, a religion scholar, wrote, "Migdal was a fishing town known, or so the legend goes, for its perhaps punning connection to hairdressers (medgaddlela) and women of questionable reputation. This is as close as we get to any clear evidence that Mary Magdalene was a prostitute"[4]. According to Kripal, the identification of Mary Magdalene as a prostitute also goes back to the above mentioned sermon by Pope Gregory[5].

In this sermon, Gregory identified Mary as peccatrix, a sinful woman, using her as a model for the repentant sinner, but he did not call her meretrix, a prostitute.

However, he also identifies Mary with the adulteress brought before Jesus (as recounted in the Pericope Adulterae, John 8), supporting the view of 3rd and 4th century Church fathers that had already considered this sin as "being unchaste".

Gregory's idenfication and the consideration of the woman's sin as sexual later gave rise to the image of Mary as a prostitute.
"Kreuzigung" by Meister des Marienlebens
"Kreuzigung" by Meister des Marienlebens

This viewpoint is also espoused by much medieval Christian art. In many, if not most, medieval depictions, Mary Magdalene is shown as having long red hair, which she wears down over her shoulders. This was generally taken to be a sign of sexual impropriety in women at the time. The other women of the New Testament, in these same depictions, ordinarily have dark hair that is kept beneath a scarf. This disparity between depictions of women can be seen in works such as the Crucifixion paintings by the Meister des Marienlebens.

This image of Mary as a prostitute was followed by many writers and artists until the 20th century. Even though it is less prevalent nowadays, the identification of Mary Madgalene with the adulteress is still accepted by some Christians. This is reflected in the Martin Scorsese's film adaptation of Nikos Kazantzakis's novel The Last Temptation of Christ, Andrew Lloyd Webber's rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar, and Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ.

[edit] Veneration
Mary Magdalene

Mary Magdalene at the foot of the cross
Born unknown
Died unknown,Ephesus, Asia Minor or Marseilles, France[6]
Feast 22 July
Attributes alabaster box of ointment[7]
Patronage apothecaries; Atrani, Italy; Casamicciola, Italy; contemplative life; converts; glove makers; hairdressers; penitent sinners; people ridiculed for their piety; perfumeries; pharmacists; reformed prostitutes; sexual temptation; tanners; women[7]
Saints Portal

[edit] In the East

The Eastern Orthodox Church maintains that Mary Magdalene, distinguished from Mary of Bethany, retired to Ephesus with the Theotokos (Mary the Mother of God) and there died, that her relics were transferred to Constantinople in 886 and are there preserved.

[edit] In the West

Gregory of Tours, writing in Tours in the sixth century,[8] supports the tradition that she retired to Ephesus, with no mention of any connection to Gaul.

How a cult of Mary Magdalene first arose in Provence has been summed up by Victor Saxer[9] in the collection of essays in La Magdaleine, VIIIe-XIIIe siècle[10] and by Katherine Ludwig Jansen, drawing on popular devotions, sermon literature and iconology.[11]

Mary Magdalene's relics were first venerated at the abbey of Vézelay in Burgundy. Jacobus de Voragine gives the common account of the transfer of the relics of Mary Magdalene from her sepulchre in the oratory of Saint Maximin at Aix-en-Provence to the newly-founded abbey of Vézelay;[12] the transportation of the relics is entered as undertaken in 771 by the founder of the abbey, identified as Gerard, duke of Burgundy.[13] The earliest mention of this episode is the notice of the chronicler Sigebert of Gembloux (died 1112), who asserts that the relics were removed to Vézelay through fear of the Saracens. There is no record of their further removal to the other St-Maximin; a casket of relics associated with Magdalene remains at Vézelay.

Afterwards, since September 9, 1279, the body of Mary Magdalene was also venerated at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Provence. This cult attracted such throngs of pilgrims that the earlier shrine was rebuilt as the great Basilica from the mid thirteenth century, one of the finest Gothic churches in the south of France.

The competition between the Cluniac Benedictines of Vézelay and the Dominicans of Saint-Maxime occasioned a rash of miraculous literature supporting the one or the other site. Jacopo de Voragine, compiling his Legenda Aurea before the competition arose, characterized Mary Magdalen as the emblem of penitence, washing the feet of Jesus with her copious tears, protectress of pilgrims to Jerusalem, daily lifting by angels at the meal hour in her fasting retreat and many other miraculous happenings in the genre of Romance, ending with her death in the oratory of Saint Maximin, all disingenuously claimed to have been drawn from the histories of Hegesippus and of Josephus.

The French tradition of Saint Lazare of Bethany is that Mary, her brother Lazarus, and Maximinus, one of the Seventy Disciples and some companions, expelled by persecutions from the Holy Land, traversed the Mediterranean in a frail boat with neither rudder nor mast and landed at the place called Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer near Arles. Mary Magdalene came to Marseille and converted the whole of Provence. Magdalene is said to have retired to a cave on a hill by Marseille, La Sainte-Baume ("holy cave", baumo in Provencal), where she gave herself up to a life of penance for thirty years. When the time of her death arrived she was carried by angels to Aix and into the oratory of Saint Maximinus, where she received the viaticum; her body was then laid in an oratory constructed by St. Maximinus at Villa Lata, afterwards called St. Maximin.
Eastern Orthodox icon of Mary Magdalene
Eastern Orthodox icon of Mary Magdalene

In 1279, when Charles II, King of Naples, erected a Dominican convent at La Sainte-Baume, the shrine was found intact, with an explanatory inscription stating why the relics had been hidden.

In 1600, the relics were placed in a sarcophagus commissioned by Pope Clement VIII, the head being placed in a separate reliquary. The relics and free-standing images were scattered and destroyed at the Revolution. In 1814, the church of La Sainte-Baume, also wrecked during the Revolution, was restored, and, in 1822, the grotto was consecrated afresh. The head of the saint now lies there and has been the centre of many pilgrimages.

[edit] Mary as a penitent

The traditional Roman Catholic feast day dedicated to Mary Madgalene celebrated her position as a penitent. This was changed in 1969, with the revision of the Roman Missal and the Roman Calendar, and now there is no mention in either of Mary Magdalene the sinner (Catholic Online).

The Magdalene became a symbol of repentance for the vanities of the world to various sects. Mary Magdalene was the patron of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Magdalene College, Cambridge (both pronounced "maudlin", as in weepy penitents). In contrast, her name was also used for the Magdalen Asylum, institutions for "fallen women", including the infamous "Magdalen Laundries" in Ireland.

[edit] Easter Egg tradition

For centuries, it has been the custom of many Christians to share dyed and painted eggs, particularly on Easter Sunday. The eggs represent new life, and Christ bursting forth from the tomb. Among Eastern Orthodox this sharing is accompanied by the proclamation "Christ is risen!", and the person being addressed would respond "Truly He is risen!".

One tradition concerning Mary Magdalene says that following the death and resurrection of Jesus, she used her position to gain an invitation to a banquet given by Emperor Tiberius Caesar. When she met him, she held a plain egg in her hand and exclaimed "Christ is risen!" Caesar laughed, and said that Christ rising from the dead was as likely as the egg in her hand turning red while she held it. Before he finished speaking, the egg in her hand turned a bright red, and she continued proclaiming the Gospel to the entire imperial house. [14]

Another version of this story can be found in popular belief, mostly in Greece. It is believed that after the Crucifixion, Mary Magdalene and the Virgin put a basket full of eggs at the foot of the cross. There, the Eggs were painted red by the blood of the Christ. Then, Mary Magdalene brought them to Tiberius Caesar (see above).

[edit] Gospel of Mary
Mary Magdalene, in a dramatic 19th-century popular image of penitence painted by Ary Scheffer.
Mary Magdalene, in a dramatic 19th-century popular image of penitence painted by Ary Scheffer.

A group of scholars have suggested that for one early group of Christians Mary Magdalene was a leader of the early Church and maybe even the unidentified Beloved Disciple, to whom the Fourth Gospel commonly called Gospel of John is ascribed. The most familiar of the scholars is Elaine Pagels.[citation needed]

Ramon K. Jusino, an internet writer, offers an explanation of this view, based on the textual researches of Raymond E. Brown in "Mary Magdalene, author of the Fourth Gospel?", 1998, available on-line. Ann Graham Brock (see ref.) summarized this reading of the texts in 2003. She demonstrated that an early Christian writing portrays authority as being represented in Mary Magdalene or in the church community structure.

These scholars also observe that the Mary Magdalene figure is consistently elevated in writings from which formal leadership roles are absent. In certain texts, while either the Peter or the Paul figure is more involved, Mary Magdalene's role is often diminished, while in other texts, the opposite occurs. A tug-of-war is evident between these two opposing systems of church government, revealing debates regarding the importance of the key roles of women in Biblical texts.

Scholars of the Mary who appears in the Nag Hammadi Gnostic texts have identified her with the Magdalene, even though she is merely given the (Coptic) equivalent of "Mary". However, Stephen J. Shoemaker thinks that this Mary is actually the Blessed Virgin Mary (Shoemaker 2001), that this fits in better with the notions that Mary was intimate with Jesus, was his greatest disciple, and was to be the center of Jesus' religion; Shoemaker has made a study of Marian liturgies and devotion in Early Christianity.

Further attestation of Mary of Magdala and her role among some early Christians is provided by the gnostic, apocryphal Gospel of Mary Magdalene which survives in two 3rd century Greek fragments and a longer 5th century translation into Coptic. In the Gospel the testimony of a woman first needed to be defended. All of these manuscripts were first discovered and published between 1938 and 1983, but as early as the 3rd century there are Patristic references to the Gospel of Mary. These writings reveal the degree to which that gospel was despised and dismissed by the early Church Fathers. In the fragmentary text, the disciples ask questions of the risen Savior (a designation that dates the original no earlier than the 2nd century) and are answered.

Then they grieve, saying, "How shall we go to the Gentiles and preach the Gospel of the Kingdom of the Son of Man? If even he was not spared, how shall we be spared?" And Mary bids them take heart: "Let us rather praise his greatness, for he prepared us and made us into men." She then delivers — at Peter's request — a vision of the Savior she has had, and reports her discourse with him, which shows Gnostic influences.

Her vision does not meet with universal approval:

"But Andrew answered and said to the brethren, 'Say what you think concerning what she said. For I do not believe that the Savior said this. For certainly these teachings are of other ideas."

"Peter also opposed her in regard to these matters and asked them about the Savior. "Did he then speak secretly with a woman, in preference to us, and not openly? Are we to turn back and all listen to her? Did he prefer her to us?"

Karen King of Harvard Divinity School has observed, "The confrontation of Mary with Peter, a scenario also found in The Gospel of Thomas, Pistis Sophia, and The Greek Gospel of the Egyptians, reflects some of the tensions in second-century Christianity. Peter and Andrew represent orthodox positions that deny the validity of esoteric revelation and reject the authority of women to teach." (introduction, The Nag Hammadi Library)

* Early Christian Writings: Gospel of Mary
* Gospel of Mary: (English), syncretic text, incorporating Coptic and earlier Greek versions; further web links

[edit] Relationship with Jesus
The penitent Mary Magdalene, by Francesco Hayez
The penitent Mary Magdalene, by Francesco Hayez

Some modern writers have come forward with claims that Mary Magdalene was the wife of Jesus. These writers cite Gnostic writings to support their argument. Sources like the Gospel of Philip do depict Mary Magdalene as being closer to Jesus than any other disciple. However, there is no known ancient document that claims she was his wife; rather, the Gospel of Philip depicts Mary as Jesus' koinonos, a Greek term indicating a 'close friend', 'companion' or, potentially, a lover. The closeness described in these writings depicts Mary Magdalene, representing the Gnostics, as understanding Jesus and his teaching while the other disciples, representing the Church, did not. Kripal writes that "the historical sources are simply too contradictory and simultaneously too silent" to make absolute declarations regarding Jesus's sexuality[15].

Mary Magdalene appears with more frequency than other women in the canonical Gospels and is shown as being a close follower of Jesus. Mary's presence at the Crucifixion and Jesus' tomb, while hardly conclusive, is at least consistent with the role of grieving wife and widow, although if that were the case Jesus might have been expected to make provision for her care, as well as for his mother Mary. It also seems to contradict Jesus refusing physical contact in John 20:17 (see Noli me Tangere)

Proponents of a married status of Jesus argue that bachelorhood was very rare for Jewish males of Jesus' time, being generally regarded as a transgression of the first mitzvah (divine commandment) — "Be fruitful and multiply". According to this reasoning, it would have been unthinkable for an adult, unmarried Jew to travel about teaching as a rabbi.

A counter-argument to this is that the Judaism of Jesus' time was very diverse and the role of the rabbi was not yet well defined. It was really not until after the Roman destruction of the Second Temple in A.D. 70 that Rabbinic Judaism became dominant and the role of the rabbi made uniform in Jewish communities. Before Jesus, celibate teachers were known in the communities of the Essenes and John the Baptist also was celibate. Later, Paul of Tarsus was an example of an unmarried itinerant teacher among Christians. Jesus himself approved of voluntary celibacy for religious reasons and explicitly rejected a duty to marry: "There are eunuchs, who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven. He that can take, let him take it." (Matthew 19:12). The Gnostics, the community that Mary represented did not condone marriage (the sexual union aspect). Since the Gnostics believed that the material body was not important, they did not agree with reproducing because it created more souls being imprisoned in the body.[citation needed]

The idea that Mary Magdalene was the wife of Jesus was popularized by books like the Holy Blood, Holy Grail (1982), The Gospel According to Jesus Christ (1991) , Bloodline of the Holy Grail: The Hidden Lineage of Jesus Revealed (1996), The Da Vinci Code (2003). It has been further popularised by the documentary The Lost Tomb of Jesus, which discusses the Talpiot tomb. Supposedly, this is the tomb of Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Judah, their "son".

The Medieval "Golden Legend[1]" (see above) says "Some say that S. Mary Magdalene was wedded to S. John the Evangelist".

The Australian scholar Barbara Thiering claims that a full account of the marriage and children of Jesus and Mary Magdalene can be derived from the New Testament by use of the pesher technique.

[edit] Metaphysical marriage
Penitent Magdalene, by Antonio Canova.
Penitent Magdalene, by Antonio Canova.

Writers employing metaphysical analogy and allegory assert that Christ was already married — to the Church. This image goes back to Old Testament depictions of the covenant between God and his people as a marriage, especially in the books Hosea, Ezekiel and the Song of Songs. Imagery of marriage also appears in the Gospels and is applied to Jesus in the letters of the Apostle Paul (e.g. Ephesians 5:22-33) and in the Apocalypse of John in the New Testament. This was later expanded by the Church fathers. Some writers, following an early tradition that Jesus is in a mystical sense the second Adam that began with Paul and continued with Irenaeus and others, embody this sense with literal parallels: like the first Adam, his bride was taken from his side when he had fallen asleep (died on the cross). In medieval Christian anagogic exegesis, the blood and water which came from his side when he was pierced, was held to represent the bringing forth of the Church with its analogy in the water of baptism and the wine of the new covenant. Thus Christ can be said in an allegorical sense to already have a wife in the Church. By shifting from the metaphysical analogy to a literal marriage, it can then be considered impossible or intolerable to believe that he was literally married.
"Pagasa" Magdalene at the foot of the cross, Photo illustration by Niccolo Cosme(Philippines)

[edit] Cultural references

This article contains a trivia section.
The article could be improved by integrating relevant items into the main text and removing inappropriate items.
This article has been tagged since June 2007.

In film and literature:

* Abel Ferrara's 2005 film Mary: French actress Juliette Binoche stars as an actress impersonating Mary Magdalene
* Andrew Lloyd Webber rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar
* The novel and movie The Last Temptation of Christ
* Margaret George's novel Mary, Called Magdalene (Peguin Books: New York, 2002)
* Ki Longfellow's novel, The Secret Magdalene (Crown/Random House, 2007)
* Secrets of Mary Magdalene (Hidden Treasures Productions, 2006)
* Kathleen McGowan's novel The Expected One (Simon & Schuster, 2006)
* Dan Burstein's novel and documentary Secrets of the Code (Alchemist Productions, 2007)
* Dan Brown's novel and later movie The DaVinci Code (2006)

In music:

* Pop singer Sandra's "Maria Magdalena"
* Tori Amos' song "Mary's of the Sea"
* Popular Croatian Singer, Doris Dragović's "Marija Magdalena"
* A Perfect Circle, "Magdelena" off the Album "Mer De Noms"
* The Mars Volta's song "Asilos Magdelena"

[edit] See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mary Magdalene

* Black Madonna
* Jesus bloodline
* Myrrhbearers

[edit] Notes

1. ^ Katherine Ludwig Jansen, The Making of the Magdalen: Preaching and Popular Devotion in the Later Middle Ages (Princeton University Press) 2000.
2. ^ Jansen 2000.
3. ^ Luke 7:36-50.
4. ^ (Kripal 2007, p. 52)
5. ^ (Kripal 2007, p. 52)
6. ^ "Saint Mary Magdalen". New Catholic Dictionary. (1910). Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
7. ^ a b Jones, Terry. Mary Magdalen. Patron Saints Index. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
8. ^ Gregory of Tours, De miraculis, I, xxx
9. ^ Saxer, La culte de Marie Magdalene en occident (1959).
10. ^ Ecole française de Rome, 1992)
11. ^ Jansen 2000.
12. ^ "the Abbey of Vesoul" in William Caxton's translation.
13. ^ (Medieval Sourcebook)
14. ^ Abernethy and Beaty, The Folklore of Texan Cultures, Denton University of North Texas Press, 2000, p. 261.
15. ^ (Kripal 2007, p. 50)

[edit] References

* Amy Wellborn, de-coding Mary Magdalene: Truth, Legend, and Lies, Our Sunday Visitor 2006: a straightforward accounting of what is well-known of Mary Magdalene.
* Ann Graham Brock, Mary Magdalene, The First Apostle: The Struggle for Authority, Harvard University Press 2003: discusses issues of apostolic authority in the gospels and the Gospel of Peter the competition between Peter and Mary, especially in chapter 7, "The Replacement of Mary Magdalene: A Strategy for Eliminating the Competition".
* Birger A. Pearson, "Did Jesus Marry?" Bible Review, Spring 2005, pp 32-39 & 47 Discussion of complete texts.
* Stephen J. Shoemaker, "Rethinking the ‘Gnostic Mary’: Mary of Nazareth and Mary of Magdala in Early Christian Tradition", in Journal of Early Christian Studies, 9 (2001) pp 555-595.
* Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince, The Templar Revelation, Simon & Schuster, 1997. Presents a hypothesis that Mary Magdalene was a priestess who was Jesus' partner in a sacred marriage.
* Joan Acocella. "The Saintly Sinner: The Two-Thousand-Year Obsession with Mary Magdalene". The New Yorker, February 13 & 20, 2006, p. 140-49. Prompted by controversy surrounding Dan Brown's the Da Vinci Code.
* Katherine Ludwig Jansen, The Making of the Magdalen: Preaching and Popular Devotion in the Later Middle Ages (Princeton University Press) 2000.
* Dan Burstein and Arne J. De Keijzer, Secrets of Mary Magdalane - CDS Books, 1593152051, 2006.
* Barbara Thiering, 2006. Jesus the Man: Decoding the Real Story of Jesus and Mary Magdalene (Simon & Schulster:Atria Books)
* In the game Xenosaga, KOS-MOS's and T-elos's objective is to join together and reform Mary Magdalene.

* Kripal, Jeffrey John. (2007), The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Religion, Chicago: The U of Chicago P

[edit] External links

* St Mary Magdalene, Catholic Encyclopaedia 1911
* Professor Christopher Witcombe's Art History course Da Vinci's Code section on Mary Magdalene at Sweet Briar College
* Mary Magdalene's burial in St.Maximin le Ste.Baume in the Provence
* illus. modern lithograph by Richard Stoddard
* Mary Magdalen Research Guide: (includes images of Pregnant Mary Magdalen)
* Convent of Saint Mary Magdalene
* St Mary Magdalen and the case for the ordination of women in the Catholic Church
* Legends of Mary Magdalene
* The Pesher of Christ: The Marriage of Jesus by Dr. Barbara Thiering
* Articles and more than 40 Paintings
* The Da Vinci Code and Mary Magdalene
* Myriam M'Gadolah: Mary Magdalene
* Mary Magdalene: Sacred Prostitute?

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